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The Costs and Implications of Our Demand for Energy : A Comparative and Comprehensive Analysis of the Available Energy Resources ; How Fossil Fuels Have Created an Energy Crisis / Exploring Our Alternatives / The Future of Energy

By Dufour, Fritz

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Book Id: WPLBN0100003041
Format Type: PDF (eBook)
File Size: 3.68 MB.
Reproduction Date: 6/3/2018

Title: The Costs and Implications of Our Demand for Energy : A Comparative and Comprehensive Analysis of the Available Energy Resources ; How Fossil Fuels Have Created an Energy Crisis / Exploring Our Alternatives / The Future of Energy  
Author: Dufour, Fritz
Volume:
Language: English
Subject: Non Fiction, Science, Energy, gas, oil
Collections: Authors Community, Science
Historic
Publication Date:
2018
Publisher: Self-published
Member Page: Fritz Dufour

Description
This book is an in-depth analysis of the dynamics of energy in the 21st century. It looks at the risks presented by non-renewable energy sources such as fossil fuels by giving a special consideration to their single most implication: climate change and by considering some fundamental yet important aspects of energy such as its forms, conservation, measure, and distribution. In it, Fritz Dufour also dives deep into the economics of energy by analyzing important concepts such as energy efficiency and the behavioral gap, energy security and its quantification, and the costs and policies of energy programs. Each type of energy – from the non-renewable category of energies (coal, petroleum, and natural gaz) – to the renewable category of energies (solar, wind, hydro, biomass, and geothermal energies) – is analyzed in terms of its discovery, extraction, storage, distribution, use, and pros and cons. A strong argument is presented in favor of being proactive by prioritizing energy-efficient technologies in order to fortify the bleak future of energy, as the world’s population is set to double by the end of the century and as each energy source has its strengths and weaknesses. Finally, the book stresses the dilemma that we face: no known single renewable source of energy can yet make up for or effectively replace the fossil fuels that have been making our world turn and upon which every single human being is directly or indirectly dependent.

Summary
This book is an in-depth analysis of the dynamics of energy in the 21st century. It looks at the risks presented by non-renewable energy sources such as fossil fuels by giving a special consideration to their single most implication: climate change and by considering some fundamental yet important aspects of energy such as its forms, conservation, measure, and distribution. In it, Fritz Dufour also dives deep into the economics of energy by analyzing important concepts such as energy efficiency and the behavioral gap, energy security and its quantification, and the costs and policies of energy programs. Each type of energy – from the non-renewable category of energies (coal, petroleum, and natural gaz) – to the renewable category of energies (solar, wind, hydro, biomass, and geothermal energies) – is analyzed in terms of its discovery, extraction, storage, distribution, use, and pros and cons. A strong argument is presented in favor of being proactive by prioritizing energy-efficient technologies in order to fortify the bleak future of energy, as the world’s population is set to double by the end of the century and as each energy source has its strengths and weaknesses. Finally, the book stresses the dilemma that we face: no known single renewable source of energy can yet make up for or effectively replace the fossil fuels that have been making our world turn and upon which every single human being is directly or indirectly dependent.

Excerpt
Today, the world is experiencing the full brunt of an energy crisis because our energy resources are a global challenge. From their discovery, their exploitation, and their storage to their distribution and their usage, they pose tremendous risks and threats both to our health and the environment. The challenge also stems from the facts that: technology does not create energy, transforming energy is expensive, and energy transitions – for example, switching from fossil fuels to, say solar energy – take time. The demand for energy is here to stay because the two fundamental factors that fuel it are inherent to mankind. These are population growth and economic activities. The world population is increasing at an astonishing rate of 1.1 percent per year or 83 million people per year. It’s projected that the current world population of 7.3 billion is expected to reach 8.5 billion by 2030; 9.7 billion in 2050 and 11.2 billion in 2100. Energy is the cornerstone of our survival. Unfortunately, the picture is not perfect considering that each source of energy has its downsides and challenges. Among recent controversies: risk of accidents and leaks posed by offshore drilling, the Keystone pipeline, the Fukushima nuclear plant accident, health and environmental risks of coal mining, hydrologic fracturing, nuclear wastes, rising costs of mineral resources, and rising carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere. Putting a meaningful price on CO₂ emissions is viewed by many as integral to achieving the 2° C climate goal. The current picture, however, reveals significant challenges relating to the geographic coverage of carbon markets, the prevailing price levels and, in some cases, the need for market reform. Carbon emissions trading schemes in operation in 2014 covered 3.7 Gt (11 %) of global energy-related CO₂ emissions and had an aggregate value of $26 billion. The average price was around $7 per ton of CO₂. In contrast, 4.2 Gt (13%) of global energy related CO₂ emissions from the use of fossil fuels receive consumption subsidies, with the implicit subsidy amounting to $115 per ton of CO₂, on average… It's important to note that climate change could also trigger a massive reduction in global population. People need land, water, food, and shelter and often satisfy these needs by destroying wild nature. But it is not just a matter of sheer numbers, for the amount of resources consumed by each person is what really makes a difference to our impact on the planet.

Table of Contents
I. BACKGROUND AND GENERAL REMARKS………………………………………………………………….4 What Is Energy?................................................................................................................................................7 Overall Risks Presented by Non-Renewable Energy Sources………………………………………………..9 Climate Change……………………………………………………………………………………11 The Economics of Energy…………………………………………………………………………………...20 What Is Energy Efficiency?............................................................................................................................27 Energy Security……………………………………………………………………………………31 Quantifying Energy Security………………………………………………………………………35 Energy Efficiency and the Behavioral Gap………………………………………………………..38 Forms, Conservation, Measure, and Distribution of Energy………………………………………………..40 II. FOSSIL FUEL ENERGY………………………………………………………………………………………...49 Understanding Carbon Dioxide……………………………………………………………………………..50 Overview of Air and Water Pollution and Health Hazards: The Three Culprits and the Facts…………….51 1. Coal………………………………………………………………………………………………………55 Origins and Development of Coal…………………………………………………………………56 Economics of Coal………………………………………………………………………………...56 Where Are the World’s Largest Coal Deposits or Reserves?..........................................................59 Is Coal “Clean” or “Dirty”………………………………………………………………………...62 Why Are Coal Reserves Spread Unevenly on the Planet?...............................................................63 Disadvantages to Coal Mining…………………………………………………………………….65 2. Petroleum………………………………………………………………………………………………...67 Formation of Petroleum…………………………………………………………………………....67 Discovery of Petroleum……………………………………………………………………………69 Retrieval of Petroleum……………………………………………………………………………..72 Arabian Production Vs. Rest of the World’s………………………………………………………73 Characteristics of Venezuelan Petroleum Vs. Canadian Petroleum……………………………….74 Other Form of Unconventional Oil Reserve……………………………………………………….76 Transportation of Petroleum……………………………………………………………………….77 World’s Major Pipelines…………………………………………………………………………...78 Use of Petroleum…………………………………………………………………………………..80 Petroleum’s Outlook……………………………………………………………………………….83 3. Natural Gas………………………………………………………………………………………………89 Natural Gas Short-term Forecast…………………………………………………………………..93 Natural Gas Storage…………………………………………………………………….................93 Transportation of Natural Gas…………………………………………………………................100 Impact of Natural Gas on the Environment……………………………………………………...101 III. NUCLEAR ENERGY…………………………………………………………………………………………103 What is Nuclear Power? The Physics Behind It.……………………………………………………………103 How Is Uranium Used to Make Electricity?...................................................................................106 Other Known Uranium Resources.…………………………………………………………………………109 Applications of Nuclear Power.……………………………………………………………………………109 Major Producers of uranium.…….…………………………………………………………………………111 Advantages of Nuclear Power....…………………………………………………………………………...114 Disadvantages of Nuclear Power...…………………………………………………………………………114 Nuclear Waste Transportation Methods...….………………………………………………………………116 IV. ALTERNATIVE TO FOSSIL FUELS: GREEN ENERGY..………………………………………………….120 1. Solar Power……………………………………………………………………………………………..120 How Do Photovoltaic Panels Work?...............................................................................................121 What Are Photovoltaic Panels Made Of?.......................................................................................123 How Much Does It Cost to Produce Solar Energy?.......................................................................123 Solar Power Applications………………………………………………………………………...124 Important Characteristic of Sunlight: Inexhaustible Energy Source……………………………..129 Types of Solar Collectors………………………………………………………………………....131 World’s Largest Solar Farms……………………………………………………………………..135 Global Photovoltaic Power……………………………………………………………………….136 Role of Economics in the Development of Solar Technologies………………………………….138 Pros and Cons of solar Power……………………………………………………………………..141 2. Wind Power…………………………………………………………………………………………….141 Rise of Wind Power In the 21st Century………………………………………………………….143 Types of Wind Turbines………………………………………………………………………….145 Storage of Wind Power…………………………………………………………………………...146 Distribution of Wind Power……………………………………………………………………....147 Potential of Wind Power………………………………………………………………………….148 Pros and Cons of Wind Power…………………………………………………………………....148 3. Hydroelectric Power……………………………………………………………………………………149 History of Hydropower…………………………………………………………………………...149 Current Use of Hydropower……………………………………………………………………....151 How Does Hydrogeneration of Electricity Work?..........................................................................153 Storage of Hydropower…………………………………………………………………………...154 Distribution of Hydroelectric Power……………………………………………………………...156 Pros and Cons of Hydroelectric Power…………………………………………………………...157 4. Biofuels…………………………………………………………………………………………………158 What Is Biofuel and How Is It made?.............................................................................................158 Implications of Growing Biomass for Fuel……………………………………………………….160 Pros and Cons of Using Biomass to Generate Biofuels…………………………………………..162 5. Geothermal Energy……………………………………………………………………………………..163 Definition and Origin of Geothermal Energy…………………………………………………….163 Use of Geothermal Energy………………………………………………………………………..165 How Does Geothermal Compare to Other Energy Sources?..........................................................168 Pros and Cons of Geothermal Energy…………………………………………………………….170 V. ENERGY AND POLITICS……………………………………………………………………………………..174 Role of Energy in Armed Conflicts………………………………………………………………………..179 VI. FUTURE OF ENERGY………………………………………………………………………………………...182 Costs and Benefits of Policies and Programs That Address Barriers……………………………………...184 Short-term Forecast for U.S. Electricity, Coal, Renewables, and Emissions……………………………...187 International Energy Outlook……………………………………………………………………………...188 World delivered energy use by sector……………………………………………………………196 Role of technology in the future of energy………………………………………………………………...200 Probable and Possible Future Energy Sources…………………………………………………………….210 VII. Bibliography…………………………………………………………………………………………………...216 VIII. From the Same Author………………………………………………………………………………………..223

 

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